Income Tax Law

In any systemized society, tax is vital and has become the building block of civility. Income tax is a charge that government sets upon individuals, corporations, or any taxable unit (called taxpayers) and is then used as the government’s revenues. These taxes can vary depending on the profits or income of the taxpayer, and can also vary according to jurisdictions. Failure to pay taxes can render a person or corporation in danger of criminal charges, which can come with significant penalties, fines and even jail time.

The Internal Revenue Code has set forth the federal tax laws which the government follows. Tax laws in the United States are handled and enforced by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), and these taxes are regulated by a tax rate. Direct taxes are taken from individuals and corporations. There are several situations, credits, and exemptions that can be applied to lower the amount of tax, and each taxpayer is generally responsible for filing their income tax returns.

Normally, tax is computed as the result of tax rate multiplied by the taxable income, however, deductions and tax rates can change depending on the status of the taxpayer upon the filing of the income tax returns. Tax rates generally increase as the taxable income also increases, also known as graduated rates and usually applies at a federal level. Because each jurisdictions have their own due dates and other administrative processes, it is the jurisdictions own responsibility to adjust the tax provided by the taxpayer.

Penalties are given to those who have failed to file tax returns, have filed them incorrectly, or were late in their filing. These penalties are usually based on the amount of tax stated as well as the degree of lateness. However, intentional failures (for example, tax fraud) have criminal charges and can cause loss or forfeiture of property. When these tax issues arise, the IRS and the Department of Justice takes over the case. People who are in trouble with the IRS should get help from a professional who is well-versed in tax law, such as an accountant or an attorney.

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Will Drinking Beer Land You in the ER?

About a third of injury-related emergency room visits involve alcohol. A recent study shows that certain alcoholic drinks are more likely to be involved than others in these injuries. Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore found that Budweiser, Steel Reserve, Colt 45, Bud Ice, and Bud Light were consumed most often by patients who ended up in the emergency room. Three of the named brands are malt liquors, which actually contain more alcohol than a regular beer. Although they account for less than 3% of actual beer consumption in the population, four malt liquors accounted for about half of the beer consumption of emergency room patients. This new study is the first to look at whether certain types of liquor or drink brands are overrepresented in cases of emergency room visits.

Injuries are the fourth-leading cause of death in the United States, and about 65% of these injuries are accidental, with alcohol playing a role in a large percentage of these unintentional injuries. People who drink are more likely to engage in risky behavior, be involved in auto accidents, and act impulsively. Previous studies found that this behavior led to emergency room admissions involving auto accidents, accidental drowning, falls, and homicides.

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Breast Reconstruction after a Mastectomy

Breast cancer is one of those things that can greatly impact a person life, and overcoming it is one of life’s greatest accomplishments. For those who have suffered from it, or have loved ones who have, mastectomy is one of the ways to treat it. Mastectomy is an operation that removes the breast affected with cancer. After the surgery, the breast can be reconstructed through another surgery. Breast reconstruction is often the next step for women who have mastectomy.

Breast reconstruction is another surgery to help rebuild the shape of the breast that was removed because of the cancer. There are two ways this surgery will be performed: immediately after surgery or after the surgery. Immediate breast reconstruction is done after the mastectomy, while delayed breast reconstruction is done after the mastectomy wounds have healed.

Breasts can be rebuilt using three types of implants; saline, silicone or autologous tissues. Saline and silicone are artificial implants while autulogous tissues are tissues that can be taken from other parts of the patient’s body. Choosing which implant to use or when to have the breast reconstructive surgery done can all depend on the possibility of chemotherapy, the size and shape of the breast that was removed, the age and most especially the health of the patient. All these things are to be considered before having breast reconstruction and talking with the reconstructive surgeon and breast surgeon can help the patient choose which one is most beneficial.

As told on the website of Bergman Folkers Cosmetic Surgery, traumatic events such as breast cancer and the scars that come along with it can affect the patient’s life in many ways. Not only can these experiences affect the patient physically, but these serious disfigurements can give stress and emotional trauma to those who have them.

More and more women have been choosing to have breast reconstruction after mastectomy in order to have their life back to normal. Even famous Hollywood actress Angelina Jolie underwent double mastectomy and came out successful after her surgery. With the advancements of medical technologies, these serious physical disfigurements from diseases and injuries can be addressed so that life will continue the way it was, if not for the better.

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Vandalism Crimes

Vandalism is one of the many offenses that fall into “criminal mischief” category. It is the act of intentionally destroying another person’s property. They may include breaking windows, graffiti, damage to other people’s vehicles, and even destroying a website. It is considered a crime because vandalism destroys public and private property, this accounting as being a threat to society. Vandalism is considered a malicious act with personal ill-will, even though it may not be necessary for the perpetrators to know who their victim (or victims) is.

There are other people who argue that vandalism is an “art”, however those who have committed the crime of vandalism are still liable for penalties that the law has made. It may be hard to determine vandalism because it covers a broad spectrum of activities, but for law enforcers, any act that generally includes willful behaviors intended to destroy, alter or deface a property (public or private) can be considered as vandalism. It should also be noted that any person can be charged with vandalism if they are caught with any means to commit the act (such as underage teenagers with spray paint at school or park, possessing glass cutter, drill bits, etc.)

There are laws that have been made to handle vandalism, and the severity of these laws each depend on the States they are in. These laws are generally made in order to protect and prevent destruction of public and private properties. They are also made to protect people against hate crimes or other negative behaviors against religious or minority groups, as in the past some vandals have committed the act to spread hate and misinformation.

As written in an article on the website of Austin lawyer Ian Inglis, there are certain places or properties that are especially protected against vandalism, and most of these places are public or owned by the government. Places such as those that offer telecommunication services, medical facilities, public transports facilities, and public utilities are all protected against vandalism. Vandalism is considered either a misdemeanor or a felony offense, and penalties include hefty fines, jail time and possibly both, depending on numerous factors.

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Financial Assistance for Long-Term Disability

Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) is the go-to financial assistance program if long-term disability is the problem. However, filing for SSD benefits can be difficult if you are not completely sure what you are doing. The Disability Determination Services (DDS) office charged with determining whether or not a person is disabled has strict rules on who is approved. Even if you do get approved on your first try, chances are the monthly benefits are less than what you expect or need. The DDS determines the monthly stipend given to each claimant.

According to the Illinois Department of Human Services where that state’s DDS operates, the turnaround time for an SSDI application is 90 days. But less than 30% of those who make an application are approved, so that means 90 days with no financial assistance, and you have at least a 70% chance of being denied. There is an appeals process, but if you have to go all the way to the administrative law judge, you could be looking at a wait of 1.5 years on average. This means it could be more than 18 months, and that can be a severe hardship for some people, especially if you are not eligible to receive workers’ compensation benefits.

It should be noted that the DDS also processes Supplemental Security Income (SSI) claims for the disabled worker who does not qualify for SSDI, but again the process can be confusing. However, once you qualify for SSI, you may also qualify for the state supplemental payment (SSP) which makes up the difference between the monthly maintenance costs of your disability and the SSI payments.

It is important that you know your way around the SSDI and SSI programs so that you can apply successfully to receive benefits if you become disabled. With the help of an experienced SSDI lawyer, you have a better chance of getting approved as well as understand what benefits you can and should receive under state and federal statutes.

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Illegal Drag Racing

Reckless driving is the leading causes of car accidents, accounting to more than one-third of the accidents that happened on the road. It is considered as a misdemeanor offence, and penalties for this type of offence may depend on the specifics of the offence and the law of the state that the offence has been committed. To be considered as reckless driving, the driver must have demonstrated an obvious disregard to the safety of property, animals and other people.

There are a number of activities that can account as reckless driving. In highways and speedways, one of the most dangerous things that can cause car accidents is drag racing. Drag racing is a competition between two cars from a designated point to the finish line. What makes the highways a good venue for these dangerous races is because most highways provide a straight line to race on, and usually competitors go for a quarter mile track. Most people engage in drag racing for different reasons such as fame, thrills, and coolness. Media also influence people to participate and view drag racing as a sport.

Speeding is one of the top concerns of drag-racing. Because you want to beat the other person to the finish line you tend to push the vehicle to its top speed, which can be dangerous particularly when there are other vehicles on the road as well. At top speed, a driver will have a harder time controlling the vehicle, given a smaller time to react, and increase the chances of severe injuries because of the impact. According to Schuler, Halvorson, Weisser, Zoeller & Overbeck, P.A., serious injuries and even loss of life can occur when speeding accidents occur on a busy highway.

The penalties for drag racing on the highways, being a Class 1 misdemeanor, range from zero to six months in jail, fines of up to US$ 2, 500, possible driver’s license suspension, and even community service. Repeat offenders can even have more penalties. Every year, 3 million people get hurt in car accidents, and these injuries do not only involve physical injuries. Loss of employment, mental trauma, and even possible life-changing injuries can occur, therefore being a responsible motorist not only calls for responsible driving, but also reporting those who are negligent drivers.

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Injuries to Children Due to Hazardous Property

Premises liability accounts for both the land owner and the residents being liable for any accidents or injuries that happen in the property. It may depend on the laws and procedures of each State how and who is liable for the injury that occurred. Several personal injuries can happen due to a premises liability; nevertheless if they are caused by negligent acts of others then the victim has the right for compensation.

According to the car accident lawyers at Habush Habush & Rottier S.C. ®, many premises liability cases involve injuries related to slip and falls, dangerous chemicals in the environment, escalators, elevators, and building collapses. These kinds of things should not be persistent dangers on a property. Premises liability laws exist to protect people from these conditions, creating a minimum standard for building conditions in the U.S.

It is important to know the different laws or procedures pertaining to premises liability. There are States that follow the status of the injured visitor when determining liability, while other States depend on the property’s condition and the activities of both the land owner and the visitor. Also, it is vital to understand that an occupier of the land (namely an apartment tenant) is also considered as a landowner in certain situations or circumstances.

When it comes to injuries to children due to premises liability, it is the landowner’s responsibility to give warning to children, and especially if the land owner knows (or should know) they are more or less to enter the premises and that the premises present a potential hazardous condition that can likely cause personal injury to anyone. It is necessary to prove that the land owner have neglected their duty to maintain the safety of their property, or that they have failed to uphold their obligation to practice reasonable care to eliminate the danger or alternatively protect the children.

Children are especially vulnerable to heavy metal toxicity, a problem that can arise when there is an abundance of lead or other toxic metals on a property, such as where a child goes to school or lives. Toxicity can make a child very sick and can even be fatal.

A parent can file for personal injury lawsuit in behalf of their children who have suffered from an injury due to land owners failing to properly protect them from dangerous areas on a piece of property. Injuries to children, especially young ones, can leave long-term effects on their physical and mental health. It is necessary to fight for the rights and welfare of children who have endured physical and emotional pain due to the negligent actions of other people.

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The Differences between Business Mergers and Acquisitions

Anyone who has owned a stock in a company is part-owner, therefore anything that happens to the company, they should be informed as well. One of the many things that can occur in a company is merger and acquisition. Not everyone in the business world is aware of what these two terms really mean, therefore before entering into any type of business, it is important to know as many things as you can about it.

Merger and acquisition is where two companies combine; one corporation is absorbed into another corporation. When a merger and acquisition occurs, the more important corporation takes over the less important corporation, where the latter losses its identity and all its rights, privileges, and liabilities are assumed by the more important corporation. These mergers and acquisitions are regulated by federal and state laws and these regulations are based on the concerns that it eliminates conflicts among merged companies.

To differentiate merger and acquisition, merger is where both companies have equal rights in the newly made corporation and both companies know their own roles in the new corporation, whereas acquisition refers to a company buying a part or all of a company. Mergers do not occur as frequently as acquisitions do, however, because of acquisition’s stigma of being seen as a hostile takeover.

According to the website of Arenson Law Group, PC, business law is one of the most complex and confusing part of establishing a new business, which can easily make it also one of the most overwhelming aspects. Legal disputes and litigation are almost inevitable, therefore understanding how to handle such issues can help prevent further battles in the long run. Starting a new company can be a incredibly difficult thing to do; a lot of legal hurdles must be crossed and paperwork must be in order before actually starting up a lot of the businesses practices. Knowing more about how to start a business from a legal standpoint helps in ensuring legal problems can be avoided in the future, which will save you money later. It’s like an investment in yourself.

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Reasons No One Should Speed

Driving can be a frustrating activity—it requires constant concentration on the road and compliance with all posted regulations and traffic laws. For drivers on an extended road trip, specifically those on a sparsely populated road, following the speed limit can feel like an unnecessary caution that adds hours of travel. However, most drivers don’t realize just how dangerous speeding truly is—according to the website of Schuler, Halvorson, Weisser, Zoeller & Overbeck, P.A., more than 30 percent of all automobile accidents in the United States occur when motorists exceed the posted speed limit of the road they are driving on.

According to a recent British study, an increase of 1 kilometer per hour in driving speed led to a 3 percent increase in accident rates. The reasons for the correlation are clear—the faster a motorist is driving, the less time they have to react to road hazards or other drivers. The same study also recorded a significantly higher risk of injury for the speeding driver compared to the driver who was traveling at a safe speed, which the authors attributed to reduced time to react and brake.

In addition to reducing a driver’s ability to react, speeding also increases the severity of accidents. A 2006 study conducted in Indiana found that “increases in speed significantly increase the likelihood that an accident would result in an injury or fatality” and showed that a 1 percent increase in posted speed limits led to a 2.77 percent jump in automobile fatalities.

Speeding not only wastes gas, but it contributes to countless automobile accidents. It is up to drivers to obey posted speed limits and reduce the risk of speeding-related accidents—take the time to follow regulations and prevent tragic speeding accidents.

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New Automobile Safety Features to Watch out for

Every time you get behind the wheel of a car, you take a risk. Not only are drivers responsible for paying attention to and following laws and traffic regulations, but they must be ready for unexpected road hazards and vehicle failures. Drivers must also watch out for reckless motorists and people under the influence of drugs and alcohol. Even the safest, most careful driver can easily become overwhelmed by the vast number of road dangers.

Fortunately, automakers are doing their best to make cars and roadways safer—here is a short list of new automobile technologies that consumers can expect to become commonplace in the next few years.

Night vision

Employing advanced thermal and infrared technology, night vision systems enable cars to spot road hazards such as animals or pedestrians long before the car’s headlights illuminate the dangerous portion of the road. Night vision technologies promise to give drivers a few extra moments to brake, decreasing the number of nighttime accidents.

Warning systems

Distracted drivers cause numerous accidents each year, from motorists using cell phones to tired drivers making lengthy road trips. Several automakers are already pioneering warning systems that monitor the car’s position within the lane using light sensors, and alert drivers if their car is veering and swerving. Some warning systems even briefly take control of the car if the driver does not respond, and swing the vehicle back into place.

Blind spot detection

Utilizing sensors or cameras, a blind spot detection system can warn drivers of cars in their blind spots when they are about to switch lanes.

It’s difficult to predict the full effect of new vehicle safety technologies, but in all likelihood they will reduce the disastrous effects of distracted driving and prevent some of the tragic accidents that occur so frequently on American roadways.

However, should any of these safety features prove to be defective, the consequences can be disastrous. Car accidents caused by malfunctioning automobile parts, especially those that drivers depend on such as brakes and accelerators, can result in fatal accidents. It is difficult to imagine the impact that a defect in a safety system would have, as that would depend on the kind of system, but it is plain to see that any type of malfunction can lead to a driver making an erroneous decision that could end in an accident.

According to the website of Habush Habush & Rottier S.C. ®, if such an injury occurs, a person is allowed to file a car accident lawsuit against the automaker.

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